Lyophosome™ made from Natural Phosphatidylcholine (PC) Lipid Extracts
Liposomes are extensively used to study the interaction of proteins, peptides and other molecules with the surface of a lipid membrane. One of the parameters that affects this interaction is the charge of the liposomal membrane. Liposomes are always made in aqueous environment and they are sized to the desired size in liquid state using various methods such as high pressure extrusion through nano sized pore track etch membranes. Liposome without water is meaningless. In rare occasions, liposomes are freeze dried and proliposomes are formed in the presence of a lyoprotectant such as trehalose. Using a lyoprotectant is necessary in order to maintain the size of the liposomes after rehydration.
Lyophosome™-Natural PC extract catalog is composed of many liposomes made from phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids that are made from natural lipids that are extracted from egg yolk, soybean, tissues and organs such as brain, heart and liver with and without cholesterol. Adding 30% cholesterol makes the liposomes serum stable and is necessary when the liposomes are used in the presence of serum.
Liposomes made from egg PC, contain both saturated and unsaturated lipids. These liposome contain 0.2% of the 14:0 lipid, 32.7% 16:0 lipid, 12.3% 18:0 lipid, 1.1% 16:1 lipid, 32% 18:1 lipid, 17.1% 18:2 lipid, 0.2% 20:2 lipid, and 0.3% 20:3 lipid, 2.7% 20:4 lipid and 0.4% 22:6 lipid.
Liposomes made from Brain PC contain both saturated and unsaturated lipids. They contain 0.3% 14:0 lipid, 30.6% 16:0 lipids, 16.5% 18:0 lipid, 0.9% 16:1 lipid, 33.3 % 18:1 lipid, 1.1% 18:2 lipid, 0.8% 20:1 lipid, 0.2% 20:3 lipid, 3.1% 20:4 lipid and 0.6% 22:6 lipid.
Liposomes made from Heart PC also contain 40% plasmalogen ether lipid. Ether lipids are more stable and do not get hydrolyzed. Heart PC also contains saturated and unsaturated lipids. It contains about 23% 16:0 lipid, 7% 18:0 lipid, 11% 18:1 lipid, 43% 18:2 lipid and 6% 20:4 lipid.
Liver PC also contains saturated and unsaturated lipids. Almost half of the lipids are saturated and the other half unsaturated. It is composed of 14% 16:0 lipid, 33% 18:0 lipid, 17% 18:1 lipid, 12% 18:2 lipid, 8% 20:3 lipid and 7% 20:4 lipid.
Soy PC also contains saturated and unsaturated lipids. Soy PC is mostly composed of unsaturated lipids and have a larger percentage of unsaturated PCs compare to egg, brain, heart and liver extracted PCs. Liposomes made from Soy PC contain 14.9% 16:0 lipid, 3.7% 18:0 lipid, 11.4% 18:1 lipid, 63% 18:2 lipid and 5.7% 18:3 lipid.
Lyophosome™ product catalog is composed of a large selection of freeze-dried liposomes with various types of lipids and wide range of zeta potentials and different properties. Lyophosome™ products should be used by scientists who understand liposome formulation and have the proper equipment to check the size, separate non-encapsulated drugs and do the proper assays. Freeze-dried liposomes cannot be used blindly.
Lyophosome™ made from Natural Phosphatidylcholine (PC) Lipid Extracts
For more information on the lipid composition of the liposomes mentioned above click here.
|Buffer, Lyoprotectant and Liposome Size|
|Liposome size||100 nm (after hydration)|
|*If you prefer a different buffer please specify in your order.|
- All natural PC extracts are composed of both saturated and unsaturated lipids. The unsaturated lipid has “kinky legs” and therefore it makes a loosely packed regions in liposomes. Saturated lipids make tightly packed regions in liposomes. The packaging of the liposomes will impact the interaction of the molecules with the surface of the liposomes.
- Various PC extracts contain various lipids. Egg, liver and brain extracted PCs almost contain half saturated and half unsaturated phospholipids. Soy PC has the less than 20% saturated PC and is mostly composed of unsaturated PC.
- Liposomes are formed upon hydration of the lyophilized formulation. If the lyophilized liposomes are hydrated with solution containing a water-soluble drug, then a large percentage of the drug will stay outside of the liposomes and in non-encapsulated form. It is advised to use a micro dialysis cassette or a spin column using the right-side beads (depending on the size of your drug) and separate the drug encapsulated liposomes from free drug and perform the drug assay in order to calculate the encapsulation efficiency.
- Lyophilized liposomes are mainly recommended to be used with drugs that have a short life in aqueous solution mainly due to hydrolysis. After adding the solution of the drug to lyophilized liposomes, the liposomes should be used immediately.
- Lyophosome™ products should be used by scientists who understand liposome formulation and have the proper equipment in order to check the size, separate the non-encapsulated drug and do the proper assays.
- Trehalose is used as a lyoprotectant in all freeze-dried liposome formulation. The size distribution after hydration of the freeze-dried formulation will be around 100 nm.
- Freeze-dried liposomes should be kept at -20°C.
Lyophosome™ is a white lyophilized powder. Liposomes are formed upon adding water to the freeze-dried proliposomes and the appearance of the formulation will be white translucent liquid.
- All proliposome lyophilized formulations are shipped on dry ice at -78.5°C in insulated packages using overnight shipping or international express shipping.
- Lyophilized proliposomes should be frozen at -20°C. Upon adding water to proliposomes, liposomes are formed.
- Clients who order from outside of the United States of America are responsible for their government import taxes and customs paperwork. Encapsula NanoSciences is NOT responsible for importation fees to countries outside of the United States of America.
- We strongly encourage the clients in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China to order via a distributor. Tough customs clearance regulations in these countries will cause delay in custom clearance of these perishable formulations if ordered directly through us. Distributors can easily clear the packages from customs. To see the list of the distributors click here.
- Clients ordering from universities and research institutes in Australia should keep in mind that the liposome formulations are made from synthetic material and the formulations do not require a “permit to import quarantine material”. Liposomes are NOT biological products.
- If you would like your institute’s FedEx or DHL account to be charged for shipping, then please provide the account number at the time of ordering.
- Encapsula NanoSciences has no control over delays due to inclement weather or customs clearance delays. You will receive a FedEx or DHL tracking number once your order is confirmed. Contact FedEx or DHL in advance and make sure that the paperwork for customs is done on time. All subsequent shipping inquiries should be directed to Federal Express or DHL.
Storage and Shelf Life
Lyophosome™ products should always be stored in a freezer at -20°C. Upon adding water to proliposomes, liposomes are formed.
Lyophosome™ is made on order. The batch that is shipped is manufactured on the same day. It is advised to use the products within 12 months of the manufacturing date.
References and background reading
1. Crowe LM, Crowe JH, Rudolph A, Womersley C, Appel L. Preservation of freeze-dried liposomes by trehalose. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 1985 Oct 1;242(1):240-7.
2. Crommelin DJ, Van Bommel EM. Stability of liposomes on storage: freeze dried, frozen or as an aqueous dispersion. Pharmaceutical research. 1984 Jul 1;1(4):159-63.
3. van Winden EC, Crommelin DJ. Short term stability of freeze-dried, lyoprotected liposomes. Journal of controlled release. 1999 Mar 8;58(1):69-86.